Many of the basic problems of farm pond management
have already been discussed. These include how to
maintain a good food supply for the fish, how to harvest
to maintain a balanced population, how to check balance,
how to control weeds and how to avoid fish kills from
algae bloom die-offs. These are not simple problems.
Ponds are complex systems that take understanding
and commitment to manage properly.
One common problem in Texas is pond “turn-over.”
Turn-overs occur when ponds are stratified; that is,
surface water is warmer than the water below and the
two layers no longer mix. This causes the cooler water
near the bottom to stagnate and become depleted in
oxygen. Fish avoid this layer of water. A turn-over occurs
when the warm upper layer suddenly cools and mixes with
the stagnant layer. The two layers mixed together may not
have enough oxygen to support fish and they die. This
usually occurs after a cold, hard rain. If a turn-over occurs,
quick aeration may save the fish. Similar fish kills also can
be caused by oxygen depletions from a bloom die-off or
rotting vegetation from herbicide treatment.